Henri Matisse worked with live models. The last photographs here show Matisse with his model in 1939, in his old age working on a sculpture and a painting from 1903.
Although Matisse might seem the antithesis of naturalism in his simplification of form in order to reveal movement, he still insisted on studying the model.
He told his students, "Note the essential characteristics of the model carefully; they must exist in the complete work, otherwise you have lost your concept on the way."
Arvid Fougstedt's drawing of the students at the Matisse Academy in the early twentieth century. The model is Lucy Vidal Krohg who married Per Krohg shown second from right. Matisse is at the easel.
Why David Hockney Should Not Be Taken Seriously by Brian Yoder Hockney argues that the camera obscura enabled artists to paint realistic images. This article argues to the contrary.
Obscura About the camera obscura.
Secret Knowledge (New and Expanded Edition): Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters The book by David Hockney.
Vermeer's Camera: Uncovering the Truth behind the Masterpieces The book by David Hockney.
Camera Obscura by Abelardo Morell.Artistic Endeavour versus Decency: Women Art Students and the Male Nude Model in Early Nineteenth-Century Paris - by Jessica Cresseveur
The Art Student's Guide To The Proportions Of The Human Form
The Art Student's Guide to the Bones and Muscles of the Human Body: and Lessons on Foreshortening
Gerard Audran's The Proportions of the Human Body
The School of Raphael: The Student's Guide to Expression in Historical Painting
The Art Student's Guide to External Anatomy
The Human Head: A Correct Delineation of the Anatomy, Expressions, Features, Proportions and Positions of the Head and Face
How To Draw The Human Figure: The Drawings Of Grace Young
How to Draw People: Using Early Copy Books
Victorian Sketches: A Victorian Sketchbook by an Unknown Artist
Life Drawing - Croquis de Pierre Lissac
Figure Drawings in Color
How Harry Cook Learned to Draw
Traite de Perspective
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